Mood Emot 2021 Jul; 19(2): 55-63
Association between Depressive Symptoms and Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults with Overweight or Obesity
Hee Chan Chung, MD1 , Young-Eun Jung, MD, PhD2 , Chanwon Park3 , Moon-Doo Kim, MD, PhD2 , Bo-Hyun Yoon, MD, PhD1
1Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Jeju National University, 3College of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea
Correspondence to: Young-Eun Jung, MD, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Jeju National University, 15 Aran 13-gil, Jeju 63241, Korea
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Received: June 4, 2021; Revised: July 5, 2021; Accepted: July 5, 2021; Published online: July 31, 2021.
© Korean Society for Affective Disorders. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: The relationship between a low vitamin D level and depression has been demonstrated repeatedly. We assessed the correlation between vitamin D status and the prevalence of depression according to body weight status.
Methods: Data from 1,747 participants who took part in the 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The presence of depression was identified by the brief, self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire- 9 (PHQ-9), vitamin D status was defined based on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and body weight status was expressed as the body mass index.
Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, participants in the vitamin D deficiency group (odds ratio [OR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-7.20) and severe deficiency group (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.04-8.00) were significantly more likely to experience depression. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that among the participants with overweight or obesity, those in the vitamin D deficiency group were 3.71 times more likely than those in the sufficiency group (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.08-12.74) to experience depression.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant association between low vitamin D levels and depression in adults with overweight or obesity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between vitamin D status and depression according to body weight status.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Depression; Overweight; Obese

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