Mood Emot 2024 Mar; 22(1): 10-18
Circadian Rhythms, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, and Chronotype: Interaction and Implication for Mental Health in Healthy Subjects
Jung Won You, MD1 , Yoonyoung Nam, MD, PhD1 , Rina Yu, MA2 , Vin Ryu, MD, PhD3
1Department of Psychiatry, National Center for Mental Health, 2Department of Mental Health Research, National Center for Mental Health, Seoul, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea
Correspondence to: Vin Ryu, MD, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, 22 Gwanpyeong-ro 170beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang 14068, Korea
TEL +82-31-380-3753 FAX +82-31-380-4118 E-mail ORCID
Received: December 22, 2023; Revised: January 22, 2024; Accepted: January 27, 2024; Published online: March 31, 2024.
© Korean Society for Affective Disorders. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Circadian rhythms have gained importance in the field of psychiatry because of their involvement in overall body functions and their association with mental health. This study investigated the relationship between circadian rhythms, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and chronotype.
Methods: Circadian rhythms, depression and anxiety symptoms, hypomanic symptoms, quality of life, hopelessness, and chronotype were evaluated in 30 healthy adults.
Results: Multiple linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant correlations between Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) scores and certain factors. Particularly, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (p=0.009), Beck Anxiety Inventory (p=0.03), and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (p<0.001) were found to be significant predictors of the degree of circadian rhythm disruption, as measured by BRIAN. The results showed that irregularity in circadian rhythms was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms, and no significant correlation was observed between chronotype and irregularity in the circadian rhythms. The findings indicated that misalignment between an individual’s chronotype and societal norms, such as work schedules and meal times, could contribute to circadian rhythm disruption, particularly in individuals with an evening chronotype. In contrast, this disruption was associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression.
Conclusion: These findings provide important information to better understand the impact of circadian rhythms on mental health.
Keywords: Circadian rhythms; Chronotype; Depression; Anxiety; Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry

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Funding Information
  • National Center for Mental Health Clinical Research Project

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